Limited Slip Differentials (LSD) are used in automobile to overcome the traction difference problem of drive wheels. In this article working of LSD is explained in a logical manner.
Consider a situation where a vehicle fitted with a standard differential moves straight, and one drive wheel is on a surface with good traction and the other wheel is on a slippery track. In a standard differential the left and right axle rotations are completely independent. Since one wheel is on a slippery track, the standard differential will make that wheel spin in excessive speed, while the good traction wheel will remain almost dead. This means high power supply to the slippery wheel and low power flow to the good traction wheel. So the vehicle won’t be able to move.
One way to overcome this problem is to limit the independency or relative motion between the left and right axles. Limited slip differentials are introduced for this purpose. One of the most commonly used LSD technology is clutch-pack based.
First we will go through constructional features of LSD. The basic components of a standard differential are shown below. It has got pinion gear, ring gear, case, spider gears and side gears.
To understand working of a standard differential please check this link . Apart from its basic components a Limited slip differential has got a series of friction and steel plates packed between the side gear and the casing. Friction discs are having internal teeth and they are locked with the splines of the side gear. So the friction discs and the side gear will always move together.
Steels plates are having external tabs and are made to fit in the case groove. So they can rotate with the case. If any of the clutch pack assembly is well pressed, the frictional force within them will make it move as a single solid unit. Since steel plates are locked with the case and friction discs with the side gear, in a well pressed clutch pack casing and the clutch pack will move together. or motion from the casing is directly passed to the corresponding axle. Space between the side gears is fitted with a pre-load spring. Pre load spring will always give a thrust force and will press clutch pack together.
You can note that spider and side gear are bevel gears. It has got one specialty. When torque is transmitted through a bevel gear system axial forces are also induced apart from the tangential force. The axial force tries to separate out the gears.
You can note that side gear and axle are 2 separate units. The side gear has got a small allowance for axial movement.
So during high torque transmission through spider-side gear arrangement, a high separating thrust force is also transmitted to the clutch pack. This force presses and locks the clutch pack assembly against wall of the casing.
Now back to the initial problem. Since one wheel is on a high traction surface, the torque transmitted to it will be higher. So the thrust force developed due to the bevel gear separation action also will be high at that side. Thus clutch pack at high traction wheel side will be pressed firmly and clutch pack will be locked. So power from the differential casing will flow directly to high traction axle via clutch pack assembly.
On the other hand clutch pack on the low traction wheel side is not engaged yet, so power flow will be limited to that side. So the vehicle will be able to overcome the traction difference problem.
However while taking a turn the LSD can act like a normal differential. In this case thrust force developed due to bevel gear separation action won’t be that high. So the plates in clutch pack will easily overcome frictional resistance and will be able to slip against each other. Thus the right and left wheel can have different speed just like an open differential. Following are the other commonly used technologies used to overcome the drive wheel traction difference problem.
Sabin Mathew, IIT Delhi postgraduate in mechanical engineering. Founder of Lesics Engineers Pvt Ltd & 'LESICS' YouTube channel. He provide quality engineering education on his YouTube channel. And 'LESICS' covers a huge variety of engineering topics. Sabin is a very passionate about understanding the physics behind complex technologies and explaining them in simple words. To know more about the author check this link